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Tools of the Trade

Anytime you get involved in a sport or hobby, some specialty equipment is
needed to help you achieve your goals. Baseball players need a glove, bat,
and ball. Skiers need skis, poles, and warm clothing. R/C airplane
enthusiasts need specialty tools, fuel dispensers, radio equipment etc.

The same is somewhat true in pinewood derby racing. Fortunately, success
can be achieved without spending serious money, and in fact people have
successfully built pinewood derby cars for years with few tools. But
having the right tools (and knowing how to use them) makes the job simpler
and more enjoyable, and the results at the track are generally better.

In this article I will first describe the woodworking tools that are most
commonly used for building a pinewood derby car. Next I will describe some
specialty tools that were designed specifically for car building. As each
tool is described, I will note whether the tool is 'Required' or 'Optional'.

For some of the tools I have included links to pictures on the Rockler
Woodworking Superstore web site. Rockler sells top quality products, so
naturally their prices are not cheap (likely you can find the tools locally
for a better price). However, if you choose to purchase a tool from
Rockler, please use the links provided to access their site, as I do get a
(very) small commission for any purchases you make. Thanks!


WOODWORKING TOOLS

== Saw - At least one saw is required ==


Coping Saw


The most versatile saw for pinewood derby building is the Coping Saw. The
Coping Saw is designed for cutting curves in relatively thin material, so it
is excellent for cutting the outline of a car body as viewed from the top of
the car. The Coping Saw does not work as well for cutting thick material, so
it is nice to have a more general purpose saw for cutting the material off
of the top of the car.

Here are some general suggestions for sawing.

- Start the cut by making short gentle strokes. When the saw is firmly in
the wood, take long even strokes.

- Go slowly, and watch carefully to make sure the cut is staying in line. If
the cut is wandering, either back up and start again in the right direction,
or start the cut from the opposite side.

- When cutting completely through a block of wood, place a scrap piece of
wood tightly against the side of the block from which the saw blade will
exit. This minimizes the amount of chipping at the saw exit point.


== Drill - A hand drill and some basic drill bits are required ==



Drill Bits


I strongly recommend the use of "Brad Point" or "Forstner" drill bits. These
bits are designed to cut clean holes in wood. Auger bits are nice, but the
long threaded tip is not good for the precise needs of derby cars. Spade
bits cause excessive chipping, and standard drill bits tend to chip and
wander.

Here are some general tips:

- Clamp the wood block in place. Don't attempt to drill with one hand while
holding the block with the other.

- Drill straight down with the drill no higher than chest level. If needed
stand on a step stool to get the needed height.

- Use steady, even pressure on the drill. Pushing too hard can result in
deeper holes than desired.

- When drilling completely through the block, put a scrap piece of wood
underneath the block. This will minimize chipping at the drill bit exit
site.

- To remove the drill bit from a hole, pull upwards and start the drill.


== Chisel - Optional ==


Chisels


Chisels are used when creating a square or rectangular hole or cavity in a
car, such as when creating a cavity in the bottom of the car for holding
lead.

Here are some general tips:

- If at all possible, remove most of the wood with a drill.

- Use a hammer and chisel to make the first chisel cuts around the edge of
the hole being chiseled. Tap the chisel gently, and remove a small amount of
wood at a time. Taking too big of a bite can cause the wood block to split.

- Use the chisel by itself to pry and cut out any wood in the center of the
hole.

- When removing a thin shaving, a hammer is not needed. Just push the chisel
with steady pressure.

- Keep the chisel sharp to avoid splitting the wood, and most importantly,

- Keep all body parts away from the cutting edge!


== Files/Rasps - A fine file is required, others are optional ==


Rasps


Files and rasps are used to shape the wood after it has been rough cut with
a saw. Files come in several shapes including round (or "Rat Tail"),
triangular, half round, and flat. Rasps are rough files that remove a lot of
wood. Rasps are used for rough shaping; files can then be used to complete
the job. With many car designs, a rasp is all that is necessary, as the job
can be finished with sandpaper. So, if you are only going to buy one file,
buy a rasp. I recommend the purchase of a "Shoe Rasp" (a.k.a. "4-in-1" or
"4-in-hand"). The Shoe Rasp has four different surfaces on one tool. Two of
the surfaces are flat, and two are rounded. Two of the surfaces are rough
rasps, and two are fine rasps. Thus, this one tool is very versatile.

Here are some general filing tips:

- Files only cut on the push stroke, so use most of your energy pushing, not
pulling.

- To keep the file working properly remove the sawdust from the file teeth
occasionally. A "File Card" or a wire brush can be used for this job.

- Use flat files to shape flat surfaces and outward-curved surfaces. Use
rounded files to shape inward-curved surfaces.

- A small triangular file is useful for shaping the lines of complex car
bodies. This tool, or a small rectangular file, are required for removing
the burrs on nail-type axles.


== Sandpaper - Required ==


Sandpaper



Sandpaper is used to smooth the surface of the wood before painting.
Sandpaper is rated in "grit" with the number identifying the roughness of
the paper. Smaller numbers indicate rougher paper. Sandpaper also comes in
different styles, as it can be used on metal and wood. However, most styles
will work on wood.

Sanding tips:

- Start with rough paper, and then progress to finer paper. A good
progression is 60, 150, 220, and 400.

- For sanding smooth, flat surfaces, use a Sanding Block. This is a tool
made to hold a 1/4 sheet of sandpaper. Typically it has a padded surface,
which is best for smoothing wood.

- Sand back and forth in the direction of the wood grain. On the end of the
car, sand in a circular motion.

- To sand inside a body hole or a small surface, use a piece of sandpaper
taped to a small flat object (Popsicle stick, small ruler, etc.).

- To sand inward curved surfaces, use a piece of sandpaper wrapped around a
dowel rod (or piece of broomstick).

- Between coats of paint, lightly sand the car with 600 grit paper. This
sandpaper is also excellent for polishing the wheel tread (use it wet).


== Glue - At a minimum, have some white glue ==


Glue


Glue comes in several different types. Always use the proper glue for the
job.

- Use "Wood Glue" (yellow glue) or white glue when gluing wood to
wood, for repairing chips and cracks, and for gluing the axles in place.

- Use epoxy when gluing non-wood parts to wood. For example, use epoxy for
gluing lead weights to the car.

- Epoxy can be purchased with different drying times. The 30-minute variety
is best when building the car, as it gives the builder time to make sure the
parts are properly placed. However, the 5 minute variety is good when a glue
job is needed at the weigh-in.

- Hot glue can be used to glue on attachments.

- Only use super glue for an emergency repair during a race.


== Clamp - One clamp is required ==


Clamps


They say that you can never have too many clamps, and building a pinewood
derby car is very difficult without one or two. The main use is for holding
the car in place while drilling and sawing. The other use is for clamping a
hand drill in place while preparing the wheels and axles.

The The two types of clamps that I think work the best for car building are:

- Bar Clamp - These come in many different lengths. Get one long enough to
clamp a hand drill to a worksurface.

- C-Clamp - These also come in a variety of sizes, so similarly, get one
long enought to clamp a hand drill to a worksurface.


SPECIALTY TOOLS

== Wheel Mandrel - Required ==


Pro-Wheel Mandrel


The wheel mandrel is used to clamp a wheel for placement in the chuck of a
drill. With the drill spinning, the tread surface of the wheel can be
smoothed by applying some fine-grit (600 grit) wet/dry sandpaper (use it
wet) to the tread surface. If allowed in your local race, the wheel mandrel
will also hold the wheel while more extensive wheel modifications are made.

- Always clamp the drill in place.

- Try inserting the mandrel further into the chuck and tighten down on the
wider body portion of the mandrel. Some folks have told me that they
actually cut off the thin shaft of the mandrel with a hack saw.

- Tighten the mandrel screw firmly, but don't over tighten as they could
damage the wheel hub.

- Wheel Mandrels are often shipped with some sandpaper. In my opinion, that
sandpaper is too coarse for use on wheels, so I suggest using it on the car
body instead.

For more information on wheel preparation, see Volume 2, Issue 1 of this
newsletter.

== Pro-Body Tool ==


Pro-Body Tool


The Pro-Body Tool serves as a drilling guide for accurately creating new
axle holes or reaming existing axle slots. It is used with a clamp (C or
Bar type) and a hand drill.

- After clamping the tool in place drill both the left side and right side
axle slot without releasing the clamp. Then move the tool to the other
location and repeat.

- Use the correct axle guide holes - either the #44 hole for BSA and PineCar
axles, or the 3/32" hole for Awana axles.

Full instructions with photos can be found Here.


CONCLUSION
Having the right tools greatly simplifies the task of building a pinewood
derby car. When we first started building cars, we had a few tools. As the
years went by, and our experience grew, so did our supply of tools.

So, for beginners, I recommend purchasing/borrowing all of the tools listed
above as 'required', and possibly a few of the optional tools. Then next
year, get a few additional tools. Before long, you will not only be an
'expert', but you will also have the 'tools of the trade.'

From Pinewood Derby Times Volume 2, Issue 3

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